Squamous metaplasia


  • Metaplastic process in which the normal urothelium is replaced by either keratinizing or nonkeratinizing stratified squamous epithelium

Clinical features


  • More common in women than men

  • Typically affects older adults

  • Often a response to urothelial injury (e.g., chronic infection, indwelling catheter, calculi, neurogenic bladder, Schistosoma spp. infection)

  • Nonkeratinizing, glycogenated squamous metaplasia of the trigone is seen in up to 90% of adult women and is considered a variant of the normal histology; it is also seen occasionally in men receiving anti-androgen and/or estrogen therapy

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